Malus x domestica cv. Gala Diploid Consensus Whole Genome v1.0 Assembly & Annotation
Sun X, Jiao C, Schwaninger H, Chao CT, Ma Y, Duan N, Khan A, Ban S, Xu K, Cheng L, Zhong GY, Fei Z. Phased diploid genome assemblies and pan-genomes provide insights into the genetic history of apple domestication.. Nature genetics. 2020 Nov 02.
Domestication of the apple was mainly driven by interspecific hybridization. In the present study, we report the haplotype-resolved genomes of the cultivated apple (Malus domestica cv. Gala) and its two major wild progenitors, M. sieversii and M. sylvestris. Substantial variations are identified between the two haplotypes of each genome. Inference of genome ancestry identifies ~23% of the Gala genome as of hybrid origin. Deep sequencing of 91 accessions identifies selective sweeps in cultivated apples that originated from either of the two progenitors and are associated with important domestication traits. Construction and analyses of apple pan-genomes uncover thousands of new genes, with hundreds of them being selected from one of the progenitors and largely fixed in cultivated apples, revealing that introgression of new genes/alleles is a hallmark of apple domestication through hybridization. Finally, transcriptome profiles of Gala fruits at 13 developmental stages unravel ~19% of genes displaying allele-specific expression, including many associated with fruit quality.
Homology of the Malus domestica Gala diploid Consensus Genome v1.0 proteins was determined by pairwise sequence comparison using the blastp algorithm against various protein databases. An expectation value cutoff less than 1e-9 was used for the NCBI nr (Release 2018-05) and 1e-6 for the Arabidoposis proteins (Araport11), UniProtKB/SwissProt (Release 2019-01), and UniProtKB/TrEMBL (Release 2019-01) databases. The best hit reports are available for download in Excel format.
The Malus domestica cv. GalaGala v2.0 genome gene prediction files are available in FASTA and GFF3 formats.
Functional annotation for the Malus domestica cv. Gala diploid Consensus Genome v1.0 are available for download below. The Malus_domestica Gala Genome v1.0 proteins were analyzed using InterProScan in order to assign InterPro domains and Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Pathways analysis was performed using the KEGG Automatic Annotation Server (KAAS).
Transcript alignments were performed by the GDR Team of Main Bioinformatics Lab at WSU. The alignment tool 'BLAT' was used to map transcripts to the Malus domestica cv. Gala diploid genome assembly. Alignments with an alignment length of 97% and 97% identify were preserved. The available files are in GFF3 format.