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Map Set Name: Almond-NL-F1-2010 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Almond-NL-F1-2010 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 157 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Prunus amygdalus (Almond) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 September, 2009  
Description: Peach and almond have been considered as model species for the family Rosaceae and other woody plants. Consequently, mapping and characterisation of genes in these species has important implications. High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a recent development in the detection of SNPs and other markers, and proved to be an efficient and cost-effective approach. In this study, we aimed to map genes corresponding to known proteins in other species using the HRM approach. Prunus unigenes were searched and compared with known proteins in the public databases. We developed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, polymorphic in a mapping population produced from a cross between the cloned cultivars Nonpareil and Lauranne. A total of 12 SNP-anchored putative genes were genotyped in the population using HRM, and mapped to an existing linkage map. These genes were mapped on six linkage groups, and the predicted proteins were compared to putative orthologs in other species. Amongst those genes, four were abiotic stress-responsive genes, which can provide a starting point for construction of an abiotic resistance map. Two allergy and detoxification related genes, respectively, were also mapped and analysed. Most of the investigated genes had high similarities to sequences from closely related species such as apricot, apple and other eudicots, and these are putatively orthologous. In addition, it was shown that HRM can be an effective means of genotyping populations for the purpose of constructing a linkage map. Our work provides basic genomic information for the 12 genes, which can be used for further genetic and functional studies.  
Maps:
G1 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G2 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G4 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G5 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G6 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G8 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Almond-RD-F1 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Almond-RD-F1 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 57 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Prunus amygdalus (Almond) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 February, 2010  
Description of 2007 map: Six tree traits (self-compatibility, blooming date, blooming density, productivity, leafing date and ripening time) and five pomological traits (kernel taste, in-shell weight, shell hardness, kernel weight and double kernel) were studied in an F1 almond progeny of 167 seedlings from the cross between the French cultivar R1000 and the Spanish cultivar Desmayo Largueta . In addition, a set of 135 codominant microsatellites or simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from peach, cherry and almond were used for the molecular characterization of the progeny. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 56 of these SSRs. Cosegregation analysis allowed the identification of the map positions of two major genes to be confirmed for kernel taste (Sk) in linkage group five (G5) and for self-incompatibility (S) in G6. QTLs mapped include two for leafing date (Lf-Q1 and Lf-Q2) in G1 and G4, one for shell hardness (D-Q) in G2, one each for double kernel (Dk-Q) and productivity (P-Q) in G4, one for blooming date (Lb-Q) in G4, two for kernel weight (Kw-Q1 and Kw-Q2) in G1 and G4, and two for in-shell weight (Shw-Q1 and Shw-Q2) in G1 and G2. Four SSR loci (BPPCT011, UDP96-013, UDP96-003 and PceGA025) were linked to the important agronomic traits of leafing date, shell hardness, blooming date and kernel taste. Finally, the development of efficient marker-assisted selection strategies applied to almond and other Prunus breeding programmes was also discussed.  
Description of 2010 map: Upon crushing, amygdalin present in bitter almonds is hydrolysed to benzaldehyde, which gives a bitter flavour, and to cyanide, which is toxic. Bitterness is attributable to the recessive allele of the Sweet kernel (Sk/sk) gene and is selected against in breeding programmes. Almond has a long intergeneration period due to its long juvenile phase, so breeders must wait 3 or 4 years to evaluate fruit traits in the field. For this reason, it is important to develop molecular markers to distinguish between sweet and bitter genotypes. The Sk gene is known to map to linkage group five (G5) of the almond genome, but its function is still undefined. Candidate genes involved in the amygdalin pathway have been mapped, but none of them were located to G5. We have saturated G5 with additional Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) using the progeny from the cross "R1000" x "Desmayo Largueta" and found six SSRs (UDA-045, EPDCU2584, CPDCT028, BPPCT037, PceGA025, and CPDCT016) closely linked to the Sk locus. The genotypes of four of these SSRs flanking the Sk locus, in a number of parents and a few seedlings of the CEBAS-CSIC almond breeding programme, allowed us to estimate the haplotypes of the parents, identifying the marker alleles adequate for an early and highly efficient selection against bitter genotypes. This analysis has established the usefulness of SSRs for screening populations of fruit trees such as almond by an easy, polymerase chain reaction-based method.  
Maps:
G1 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G2 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G4 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G5 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G6 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G8 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Almond-RD-Parental [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Almond-RD-Parental [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 58 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Prunus amygdalus (Almond) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 February, 2010  
Description of 2007 map: Six tree traits (self-compatibility, blooming date, blooming density, productivity, leafing date and ripening time) and five pomological traits (kernel taste, in-shell weight, shell hardness, kernel weight and double kernel) were studied in an F1 almond progeny of 167 seedlings from the cross between the French cultivar R1000 and the Spanish cultivar Desmayo Largueta . In addition, a set of 135 codominant microsatellites or simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers developed from peach, cherry and almond were used for the molecular characterization of the progeny. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 56 of these SSRs. Cosegregation analysis allowed the identification of the map positions of two major genes to be confirmed for kernel taste (Sk) in linkage group five (G5) and for self-incompatibility (S) in G6. QTLs mapped include two for leafing date (Lf-Q1 and Lf-Q2) in G1 and G4, one for shell hardness (D-Q) in G2, one each for double kernel (Dk-Q) and productivity (P-Q) in G4, one for blooming date (Lb-Q) in G4, two for kernel weight (Kw-Q1 and Kw-Q2) in G1 and G4, and two for in-shell weight (Shw-Q1 and Shw-Q2) in G1 and G2. Four SSR loci (BPPCT011, UDP96-013, UDP96-003 and PceGA025) were linked to the important agronomic traits of leafing date, shell hardness, blooming date and kernel taste. Finally, the development of efficient marker-assisted selection strategies applied to almond and other Prunus breeding programmes was also discussed.  
Description of 2010 map: Upon crushing, amygdalin present in bitter almonds is hydrolysed to benzaldehyde, which gives a bitter flavour, and to cyanide, which is toxic. Bitterness is attributable to the recessive allele of the Sweet kernel (Sk/sk) gene and is selected against in breeding programmes. Almond has a long intergeneration period due to its long juvenile phase, so breeders must wait 3 or 4 years to evaluate fruit traits in the field. For this reason, it is important to develop molecular markers to distinguish between sweet and bitter genotypes. The Sk gene is known to map to linkage group five (G5) of the almond genome, but its function is still undefined. Candidate genes involved in the amygdalin pathway have been mapped, but none of them were located to G5. We have saturated G5 with additional Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) using the progeny from the cross "R1000" x "Desmayo Largueta" and found six SSRs (UDA-045, EPDCU2584, CPDCT028, BPPCT037, PceGA025, and CPDCT016) closely linked to the Sk locus. The genotypes of four of these SSRs flanking the Sk locus, in a number of parents and a few seedlings of the CEBAS-CSIC almond breeding programme, allowed us to estimate the haplotypes of the parents, identifying the marker alleles adequate for an early and highly efficient selection against bitter genotypes. This analysis has established the usefulness of SSRs for screening populations of fruit trees such as almond by an easy, polymerase chain reaction-based method.  
Maps:
G1D [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G1R [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G2D [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G2R [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G3D [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G3R [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G4D [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G4R [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G5D [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G5R [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G6D [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G6R [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G7D [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G7R [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G8D [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G8R [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Almond-FT-F1 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Almond-FT-F1 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 101 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Prunus amygdalus (Almond) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 17 March, 2010  
FxT linkage map: Fifty-four RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers and 6 SSRs (simple sequence repeats) were included in a molecular marker map with 120 RFLPs (restriction fragment length polymorphisms) and 7 isozyme genes previously constructed using the offspring of a cross between the almond (Prunus amygdalus) cultivars 'Ferragnes' and 'Tuono'. Only highly reproducible RAPDs segregating 1:1 were used. To identify these markers, a total of 325 primers were screened, from which 41 produced RAPDs useful for mapping. Polymorphism was detected in six of the eight Prunus SSRs (simple sequence repeats) studied, thus enabling these to be mapped. All markers were placed on the 8 linkage groups previously identified. The number of new markers included in the map of 'Ferragnes' was 33 for a total of 126, and 30 in the map of 'Tuono' for a total of 99. The sizes of the maps of 'Ferragnes' (415 cM) and 'Tuono' (416 cM) were similar, representing a 5% increase over the maps constructed solely with isozymes and RFLPs. The estimated total size of the almond map was of 457 cM. Some markers were placed in zones with low density of markers and others in the extreme of linkage groups. The use of RAPD markers to complete genetic maps constructed with transferable markers is discussed.  
Location of the self-incompatibility gene: A progeny obtained from the almond cross 'Ferragnhs' W 'Tuono' (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) was used to study the self-incompatibility trait in three different ways: fruit set, pollen tube growth and stylar ribonuclease activity. As expected from the genotypes of the parents, all progeny appeared phenotypically as self-compatible. However, the progeny could be scored for the segregation of stylar ribonuclease isozymes and thus allowed the incompatibility locus to be placed on the almond linkage map.  
Maps:
G1F [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G1T [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G2F [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G2T [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G3F [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G3T [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G4F [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G4T [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G5F [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G5T [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G6F [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G6T [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G7F [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G7T [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G8F [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
G8T [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Almond-FB-F1 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Almond-FB-F1 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 121 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Prunus amygdalus (Almond) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 March, 1998  
Description: This is an almond genetic map constructed from an F1 of a cross between 'Felisia' x 'Bertina' (FxB). 'Felisia' was initially called D-3-5. Linkage group were constructed using RFLP, RAPD and Isozyme markers.  
Reference 1: J. Ballester. 1998. Localitzacio I analisi de caracters d'interes agronomic de l'ametller. Ph.D. Thesis. Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona.  
Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Apple-FD-Discovery-F1-2003 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-FD-Discovery-F1-2003 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 92 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 April, 2003  
Description (2003 Phytopathology): Breeding of resistant apple cultivars (Malus x domestica) as a disease management strategy relies on the knowledge and understanding of the underlying genetics. The availability of molecular markers and genetic linkage maps enables the detection and the analysis of major resistance genes as well as of quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to the resistance of a genotype. Such a genetic linkage map was constructed, based on a segregating population of the cross between apple cvs. Fiesta (syn. Red Pippin) and Discovery. The progeny was observed for 3 years at three different sites in Switzerland and field resistance against apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) was assessed. Only a weak correlation was detected between leaf scab and fruit scab. A QTL analysis was performed, based on the genetic linkage map consisting of 804 molecular markers and covering all 17 chromosomes of apple. With the maximum likelihood-based interval mapping method, eight genomic regions were identified, six conferring resistance against leaf scab and two conferring fruit scab resistance. Although cv. Discovery showed a much stronger resistance against scab in the field, most QTL identified were attributed to the more susceptible parent 'Fiesta'. This indicated a high degree of homozygosity at the scab resistance loci in 'Discovery', preventing their detection in the progeny due to the lack of segregation.  
Description (2003 Plant molecular biology): Efficient breeding and selection of high-quality apple cultivars requires knowledge and understanding of the underlying genetics. The availability of genetic linkage maps constructed with molecular markers enables the detection and analysis of major genes and quantitative trait loci contributing to the quality traits of a genotype. A segregating population of the cross between the apple varieties 'Fiesta' (syn. 'Red Pippin') and 'Discovery' has been observed over three years at three different sites in Switzerland and data on growth habit, blooming behaviour, juvenile period and fruit quality has been recorded. QTL analyses were performed, based on a genetic linkage map consisting of 804 molecular markers and covering all 17 apple chromosomes. With the maximum likelihood based interval mapping method, the investigated complex traits could be dissected into a number of QTLs affecting the observed characters. Genomic regions participating in the genetic control of stem diameter, plant height increment, leaf size, blooming time, blooming intensity, juvenile phase length, time of fruit maturity, number of fruit, fruit size and weight, fruit flesh firmness, sugar content and fruit acidity were identified and compared with previously mapped QTLs in apple. Although 'Discovery' fruit displayed a higher acid content, both acidity QTLs were attributed to the sweeter parent 'Fiesta'. This indicated homozygosity at the acidity loci in 'Discovery' preventing their detection in the progeny due to the lack of segregation.  
Description (2003 TAG): The availability of a high quality linkage map is essential for the detection and the analysis of quantitative traits. Such a map should cover a significant part of the genome, should be densely populated with markers, and in order to gain the maximum advantage should be transferable to populations or cultivars other than the ones on which it has been constructed. An apple genetic linkage map has been constructed on the basis of a segregating population of the cross between the cultivars Fiesta and Discovery. A total of 840 molecular markers, 475 AFLPs, 235 RAPDs, 129 SSRs and 1 SCAR, were used for the two parental maps constructed with JoinMap and spanning 1,140 cM and 1,450 cM, respectively. Large numbers of codominant markers, like SSRs, enable a rapid transfer of the map to other populations or cultivars, allowing the investigation of any chosen trait in another genetic background. This map is currently the most advanced linkage map in apple with regard to genome coverage and marker density. It represents an ideal starting point for future mapping projects in Malus since the stable and transferable SSR frame of the map can be saturated quickly with dominant AFLP markers.  
Maps:
1 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
11 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
12 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
13 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
14 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
15 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
16 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
17 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
5 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
6 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
8 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
9 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Apple-FD-Fiesta-F1-2003 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-FD-Fiesta-F1-2003 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 91 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 April, 2003  
Description (2003 Phytopathology): Breeding of resistant apple cultivars (Malus x domestica) as a disease management strategy relies on the knowledge and understanding of the underlying genetics. The availability of molecular markers and genetic linkage maps enables the detection and the analysis of major resistance genes as well as of quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to the resistance of a genotype. Such a genetic linkage map was constructed, based on a segregating population of the cross between apple cvs. Fiesta (syn. Red Pippin) and Discovery. The progeny was observed for 3 years at three different sites in Switzerland and field resistance against apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) was assessed. Only a weak correlation was detected between leaf scab and fruit scab. A QTL analysis was performed, based on the genetic linkage map consisting of 804 molecular markers and covering all 17 chromosomes of apple. With the maximum likelihood-based interval mapping method, eight genomic regions were identified, six conferring resistance against leaf scab and two conferring fruit scab resistance. Although cv. Discovery showed a much stronger resistance against scab in the field, most QTL identified were attributed to the more susceptible parent 'Fiesta'. This indicated a high degree of homozygosity at the scab resistance loci in 'Discovery', preventing their detection in the progeny due to the lack of segregation.  
Description (2003 Plant molecular biology): Efficient breeding and selection of high-quality apple cultivars requires knowledge and understanding of the underlying genetics. The availability of genetic linkage maps constructed with molecular markers enables the detection and analysis of major genes and quantitative trait loci contributing to the quality traits of a genotype. A segregating population of the cross between the apple varieties 'Fiesta' (syn. 'Red Pippin') and 'Discovery' has been observed over three years at three different sites in Switzerland and data on growth habit, blooming behaviour, juvenile period and fruit quality has been recorded. QTL analyses were performed, based on a genetic linkage map consisting of 804 molecular markers and covering all 17 apple chromosomes. With the maximum likelihood based interval mapping method, the investigated complex traits could be dissected into a number of QTLs affecting the observed characters. Genomic regions participating in the genetic control of stem diameter, plant height increment, leaf size, blooming time, blooming intensity, juvenile phase length, time of fruit maturity, number of fruit, fruit size and weight, fruit flesh firmness, sugar content and fruit acidity were identified and compared with previously mapped QTLs in apple. Although 'Discovery' fruit displayed a higher acid content, both acidity QTLs were attributed to the sweeter parent 'Fiesta'. This indicated homozygosity at the acidity loci in 'Discovery' preventing their detection in the progeny due to the lack of segregation.  
Description (2003 TAG): The availability of a high quality linkage map is essential for the detection and the analysis of quantitative traits. Such a map should cover a significant part of the genome, should be densely populated with markers, and in order to gain the maximum advantage should be transferable to populations or cultivars other than the ones on which it has been constructed. An apple genetic linkage map has been constructed on the basis of a segregating population of the cross between the cultivars Fiesta and Discovery. A total of 840 molecular markers, 475 AFLPs, 235 RAPDs, 129 SSRs and 1 SCAR, were used for the two parental maps constructed with JoinMap and spanning 1,140 cM and 1,450 cM, respectively. Large numbers of codominant markers, like SSRs, enable a rapid transfer of the map to other populations or cultivars, allowing the investigation of any chosen trait in another genetic background. This map is currently the most advanced linkage map in apple with regard to genome coverage and marker density. It represents an ideal starting point for future mapping projects in Malus since the stable and transferable SSR frame of the map can be saturated quickly with dominant AFLP markers.  
Maps:
1 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
10 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
11 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
12 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
14 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
15 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
16 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
17 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
2 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
6 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
8 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Apple-DT-F1 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-DT-F1 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 89 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 January, 2004  
2004 Abstract: The major scab resistance gene Vf, extensively used in apple breeding programs, was recently overcome by the new races 6 and 7 of the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis. New, more durable, scab resistance genes are needed in apple breeding programs. F(1) progeny derived from the cross between partially resistant apple cv. Discovery and apple hybrid 'TN10-8' were inoculated in the greenhouse with eight isolates of V. inaequalis, including isolates able to overcome Vf. One major resistance gene, Vg, and seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified for resistance to these isolates. Three QTL on linkage group (LG)12, LG13, and LG15 were clearly isolate-specific. Another QTL on LG5 was detected with two isolates. Three QTL on LG1, LG2, and LG17 were identified with most isolates tested, but not with every isolate. The QTL on LG2 displayed alleles conferring different specificities. This QTL co-localized with the major scab resistance genes Vr and Vh8, whereas the QTL on LG1 colocalized with Vf. These results contribute to a better understanding of the genetic basis of the V. inaequalis-Malus x domestica interaction.  
2006 Abstract: Powdery mildew, caused by the ascomycete fungus Podosphaera leucotricha, is one of the most damaging diseases of apple worldwide. Polygenically determined resistance might contribute to a significant increase of resistance to this disease in new cultivars. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed in an F1 progeny derived from a cross between the apple cultivar Discovery and the apple hybrid TN10-8. Powdery mildew incidence was assessed during four years (five seasons) in spring and/or autumn in a French local orchard. Seven additive and/or dominant QTLs were detected over the five seasons, with effects (R 2) ranging from 7.5% to 27.4% of the progeny phenotypic variation. Two QTLs, on linkage groups (LGs) 2 and 13, were consistently identified and accounted together from 29% to 37% of the phenotypic variation according to the year of assessment. The other QTLs were identified during one (LGs 1, 14), two (LG10), or three (LGs 8, 17) seasons. Their instability indicated a changing genetic determinism according to the year of assessment, for which several hypotheses may be put forward. The QTLs on LGs 2 and 8 mapped close to clusters of resistance gene analogs (RGAs) and major genes for resistance to mildew or apple scab previously identified. The stable QTLs identified on LGs 2 and 13, together with the strong effect QTL located on LG 8, are of special interest for breeding purposes, especially if combined with other major resistance genes.  
Maps:
1 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
10 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
12 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
13 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
14 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
15 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
17 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
2 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
5 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
8 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Map Set Name: Apple-FD-Discovery-F1-2005-Durel [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-FD-Discovery-F1-2005-Dur [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 94 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 26 April, 2005  
Description: Although fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most destructive diseases of apple (Malus x domestica) worldwide, no major, qualitative gene for resistance to this disease has been identified to date in apple. We conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis in two F(1) progenies derived from crosses between the cultivars Fiesta and either Discovery or Prima. Both progenies were inoculated in the greenhouse with the same strain of E. amylovora, and the length of necrosis was scored 7 days and 14 days after inoculation. Additive QTLs were identified using the MAPQTL: software, and digenic epistatic interactions, which are an indication of putative epistatic QTLs, were detected by two-way analyses of variance. A major QTL explaining 34.3--46.6% of the phenotypic variation was identified on linkage group (LG) 7 of Fiesta in both progenies at the same genetic position. Four minor QTLs were also identified on LGs 3, 12 and 13. In addition, several significant digenic interactions were identified in both progenies. These results confirm the complex polygenic nature of resistance to fire blight in the progenies studied and also reveal the existence of a major QTL on LG7 that is stable in two distinct genetic backgrounds. This QTL could be a valuable target in marker-assisted selection to obtain new, fire blight-resistant apple cultivars and forms a starting point for discovering the function of the genes underlying such QTLs involved in fire blight control.  
Maps:
12 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
13 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Map Set Name: Apple-FD-Fiesta-F1-2005-Durel [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-FD-Fiesta-F1-2005-Durel [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 93 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 26 April, 2005  
Description: Although fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is one of the most destructive diseases of apple (Malus x domestica) worldwide, no major, qualitative gene for resistance to this disease has been identified to date in apple. We conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis in two F(1) progenies derived from crosses between the cultivars Fiesta and either Discovery or Prima. Both progenies were inoculated in the greenhouse with the same strain of E. amylovora, and the length of necrosis was scored 7 days and 14 days after inoculation. Additive QTLs were identified using the MAPQTL: software, and digenic epistatic interactions, which are an indication of putative epistatic QTLs, were detected by two-way analyses of variance. A major QTL explaining 34.3--46.6% of the phenotypic variation was identified on linkage group (LG) 7 of Fiesta in both progenies at the same genetic position. Four minor QTLs were also identified on LGs 3, 12 and 13. In addition, several significant digenic interactions were identified in both progenies. These results confirm the complex polygenic nature of resistance to fire blight in the progenies studied and also reveal the existence of a major QTL on LG7 that is stable in two distinct genetic backgrounds. This QTL could be a valuable target in marker-assisted selection to obtain new, fire blight-resistant apple cultivars and forms a starting point for discovering the function of the genes underlying such QTLs involved in fire blight control.  
Maps:
3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Map Set Name: Apple-FD-F1-2005-Komjanc [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-FD-F1-2005-Komjanc [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 95 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 03 August, 2005  
Description: The availability of genetic linkage maps enables the detection and analysis of QTLs contributing to quality traits of the genotype. Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS), a relatively novel spectrometric technique, has been applied to measure the headspace composition of the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emitted by apple fruit genotypes of the progeny 'Fiesta' x 'Discovery'. Fruit samples were characterised by their PTR-MS spectra normalised to total area. QTL analysis for all PTR-MS peaks was carried out and 10 genomic regions associated with the peaks at m/z = 28, 43, 57, 61, 103, 115 and 145 were identified (LOD > 2.5). We show that it is possible to find quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to PTR-MS characterisation of the headspace composition of single whole apple fruits indicating the presence of a link between molecular characterisation and PTR-MS data. We provide tentative information on the metabolites related to the detected QTLs based on available chemical information. A relation between apple skin colour and peaks related to carbonyl compounds was established.  
Maps:
D14 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D15b [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D1b [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D2 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F14 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F15 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F2 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F2a [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F4 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F9 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Apple-FD-F1-2006 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-FD-F1-2006 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 37 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 August, 2006  
Description: new set of 148 apple microsatellite markers has been developed and mapped on the apple reference linkage map Fiesta x Discovery. One-hundred and seventeen markers were developed from genomic libraries enriched with the repeats GA, GT, AAG, AAC and ATC; 31 were developed from EST sequences. Markers derived from sequences containing dinucleotide repeats were generally more polymorphic than sequences containing trinucleotide repeats. Additional eight SSRs from published apple, pear, and Sorbus torminalis SSRs, whose position on the apple genome was unknown, have also been mapped. The transferability of SSRs across Maloideae species resulted in being efficient with 41% of the markers successfully transferred. For all 156 SSRs, the primer sequences, repeat type, map position, and quality of the amplification products are reported. Also presented are allele sizes, ranges, and number of SSRs found in a set of nine cultivars. All this information and those of the previous CH-SSR series can be searched at the apple SSR database (http://www.hidras.unimi.it) to which updates and comments can be added. A large number of apple ESTs containing SSR repeats are available and should be used for the development of new apple SSRs. The apple SSR database is also meant to become an international platform for coordinating this effort. The increased coverage of the apple genome with SSRs allowed the selection of a set of 86 reliable, highly polymorphic, and overall the apple genome well-scattered SSRs. These SSRs cover about 85% of the genome with an average distance of one marker per 15 cM.  
Maps:
D1 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D10 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D11 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D12 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D13 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D14a [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D14b [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D15 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D16 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D17 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D2 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D3a [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D3b [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D4 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D5 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D6 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D8 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
D9 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F1 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F10 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F11 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F12 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F13 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F14 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F15 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F16 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F17 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F2 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F4 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F5 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F6 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F8 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
F9 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Apple-A194-F1 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-A194-F1 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 64 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 03 July, 2007  
Description: Mapping a candidate gene (MdMYB10) for red flesh and foliage colour in apple Background: Integrating plant genomics and classical breeding is a challenge for both plant breeders and molecular biologists. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is a tool that can be used to accelerate the development of novel apple varieties such as cultivars that have fruit with anthocyanin through to the core. In addition, determining the inheritance of novel alleles, such as the one responsible for red flesh, adds to our understanding of allelic variation. Our goal was to map candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes in a population segregating for the red flesh phenotypes. Results: We have identified the Rni locus, a major genetic determinant of the red foliage and red colour in the core of apple fruit. In a population segregating for the red flesh and foliage phenotype we have determined the inheritance of the Rni locus and DNA polymorphisms of candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the candidate genes were also located on an apple genetic map. We have shown that the MdMYB10 gene co-segregates with the Rni locus and is on Linkage Group (LG) 09 of the apple genome. Conclusion: We have performed candidate gene mapping in a fruit tree crop and have provided genetic evidence that red colouration in the fruit core as well as red foliage are both controlled by a single locus named Rni. We have shown that the transcription factor MdMYB10 may be the gene underlying Rni as there were no recombinants between the marker for this gene and the red phenotype in a population of 516 individuals. Associating markers derived from candidate genes with a desirable phenotypic trait has demonstrated the application of genomic tools in a breeding programme of a horticultural crop species.  
Maps:
LG9 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Apple-IxR5-F1-2008 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-IxR5-F1-2008 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 182 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 January, 2008  
Description: Recently, a major QTL for fire blight resistance was identified in the wild species accession Malus x robusta 5 (R5) based on a single phenotypic evaluation of a progeny of 154 seedlings derived from a cross with 'Idared'. In this paper, we confirm the presence of this QTL in a repeated inoculation of the 'Idared' family in Germany as well as in a M.9 x R5 family in New Zealand. Linkage maps were constructed for each family and susceptibility to Erwinia amylovora was determined by artificial shoot inoculation of scions grafted onto rootstocks in the greenhouse in 2005 and 2006 in Germany and 2006 in New Zealand. In 2005, interval mapping of susceptibility resulted in the identification of a QTL on linkage group 3 (LG3) of apple between microsatellites Ch03E03 and Ch03G07 explaining up to 79% of phenotypic variation. The QTL was confirmed in the replicate inoculation in the 'Idared' x R5 family explaining up to 67% of the phenotypic variation with an average of 75% for both years and 83% in a New Zealand M.9 x R5 family. The collective results of the German and New Zealand populations confirm the presence of a significant QTL for fire blight resistance on LG3 of R5 under different phenotyping conditions. The interpretation of this QTL as a major fire blight resistance locus when regarding resistance as a dominant trait will be discussed.  
Maps:
LG3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Apple-M9xR5-F1-2008 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-M9xR5-F1-2008 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 183 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 January, 2008  
Description: Recently, a major QTL for fire blight resistance was identified in the wild species accession Malus x robusta 5 (R5) based on a single phenotypic evaluation of a progeny of 154 seedlings derived from a cross with 'Idared'. In this paper, we confirm the presence of this QTL in a repeated inoculation of the 'Idared' family in Germany as well as in a M.9 x R5 family in New Zealand. Linkage maps were constructed for each family and susceptibility to Erwinia amylovora was determined by artificial shoot inoculation of scions grafted onto rootstocks in the greenhouse in 2005 and 2006 in Germany and 2006 in New Zealand. In 2005, interval mapping of susceptibility resulted in the identification of a QTL on linkage group 3 (LG3) of apple between microsatellites Ch03E03 and Ch03G07 explaining up to 79% of phenotypic variation. The QTL was confirmed in the replicate inoculation in the 'Idared' x R5 family explaining up to 67% of the phenotypic variation with an average of 75% for both years and 83% in a New Zealand M.9 x R5 family. The collective results of the German and New Zealand populations confirm the presence of a significant QTL for fire blight resistance on LG3 of R5 under different phenotyping conditions. The interpretation of this QTL as a major fire blight resistance locus when regarding resistance as a dominant trait will be discussed.  
Maps:
LG3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Apple-O3xR5-US-E2002a-F1 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-O3xR5-US-E2002a-F1 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 181 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 January, 2008  
Description: BACKGROUND: Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus 'Robusta 5'. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. RESULTS: When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with 'Robusta 5' as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand 'Malling 9' x 'Robusta 5' population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein (MxdRLP1) and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German 'Idared' x 'Robusta 5' population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6 cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene (HSP90). In the US 'Otawa3' x 'Robusta5' population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY transcription factor previously associated with fire blight resistance. However, this QTL was not observed in the New Zealand or German populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the upper region of 'Robusta 5' linkage group 3 contains multiple genes contributing to fire blight resistance and that their contributions to resistance can vary depending upon pathogen virulence and other factors. Mapping markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes has proved a useful aid in defining these QTLs and developing markers for marker-assisted breeding of fire blight resistance.  
Maps:
LG3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Apple-O3xR5-US-Ea273-F1 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-O3xR5-US-Ea273-F1 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 180 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 January, 2008  
Description: BACKGROUND: Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus 'Robusta 5'. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. RESULTS: When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with 'Robusta 5' as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand 'Malling 9' x 'Robusta 5' population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein (MxdRLP1) and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German 'Idared' x 'Robusta 5' population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6 cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene (HSP90). In the US 'Otawa3' x 'Robusta5' population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY transcription factor previously associated with fire blight resistance. However, this QTL was not observed in the New Zealand or German populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the upper region of 'Robusta 5' linkage group 3 contains multiple genes contributing to fire blight resistance and that their contributions to resistance can vary depending upon pathogen virulence and other factors. Mapping markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes has proved a useful aid in defining these QTLs and developing markers for marker-assisted breeding of fire blight resistance.  
Maps:
LG3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Apple-M9xR5-F1-2009 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-M9xR5-F1-2009 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 55 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 January, 2009  
Description: Marker-assisted selection (MAS) offers quick and reliable prediction of the phenotypes of seedlings in large populations and thus opens new approaches for selection to breeders of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.). The development of framework maps enables the discovery of genetic markers linked to desired traits. Although genetic maps have been reported for apple scion cultivars, none has previously been constructed for apple rootstocks. We report the construction of framework genetic maps in a cross between 'M.9' ('Malling 9') and 'R.5' ('Robusta 5') apple rootstocks. The maps comprise 224 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, 18 sequence-characterised amplified regions, 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 42 random amplified polymorphic DNAs. A new set of 47 polymorphic SSRs was developed from apple EST sequences and used for construction of this rootstock map. All 17 linkage groups have been identified and aligned to existing apple genetic maps. The maps span 1,175.7 cM ('M.9') and 1,086.7 cM ('R.5'). To improve the efficiency of mapping markers to this framework map, we developed a bin mapping set. Applications of these new genetic maps include the elucidation of the genetic basis of the dwarfing effect of the apple rootstock 'M.9' and the analysis of disease and insect resistance traits such as fire blight (Erwinia amylovora), apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum). Markers for traits mapped in this population will be of direct use to apple breeders for MAS and for identification of causative genes by map-based cloning.  
Maps:
LG1 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG10 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG11 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG12 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG13 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG14 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG15 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG16 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG17 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG2 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG4 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG5 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG6 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG8 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG9 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Map Set Name: Apple Integrated map [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple Integrated map [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 16 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 July, 2009  
Description (from the supplementary notes): The genetic maps that were used to develop the integrated map for metacontig anchoring were derived from six F1 populations totaling 720 individuals: 270 plants from the cross between 'Golden Delicious' and 'Scarlet', grown at FEM-IASMA (San Michele, TN, Italy), 88 plants from 'Golden Delicious' x 'Braeburn', IASMA; 91 plants from 'Golden Delicious' x 'McIntosh-Wijick', IASMA; 89 plants from 'Discovery' x apple hybrid TN 10-8, INRA (Angers France); 91 plants from 'Gala' x 'Dulmener Rosenapfel', INRA (Angers, France); 91 plants from 'Royal Gala' x 'Braeburn', Plant & Food Research, (Hawke's Bay, New Zealand).  
Maps:
1 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
10 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
11 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
12 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
13 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
14 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
15 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
16 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
17 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
2 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
4 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
5 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
6 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
8 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
9 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Map Set Name: Apple-GDxA-F1 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-GDxA-F1 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 130 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 06 March, 2010  
Description: A major scab resistance gene called Va1 was identified in the Russian apple cultivar 'Antonovka' (accession APF22) conferring scab resistance under conditions of natural scab infection in the field. After scab scorings over a period of 3 years, a 1:1 segregation was observed in the mapping population 04/214 ('Golden Delicious'x 'Antonovka'). The Va1 resistance gene provides sufficient broad spectrum resistance that is of use in apple resistance breeding and has been assigned Rvi17 according the proposal for a new scab nomenclature (Bus et al., Acta Horticulturae 814:739-746, 2009). Analysis of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) located on the apple linkage group (LG) 1 showed that the Va1 locus is closely linked (1 cM) to SSR CH-Vf1 known to cosegregate with the Vf locus. A tight genetic association was also observed between a specific cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence marker (ARD-CAPS) developed from the HcrVf paralog Vf2ARD present in 'Antonovka', but there is no indication yet for a causal relationship with Vf2ARD. Although the whole race spectrum of Va1 is still unknown, it was obvious that it acts against the scab races 6 and 7 which are able to overcome the resistance of Malus floribunda 821. A second resistance factor (named Va2) was studied by race 1-specific scab tests based on grafted 04/214 clones. A 1:1 segregation ratio was observed, too, but 18 "phenotypic recombination" were found after comparisons with the field scab data of the same genotypes.Va2 was mapped on LG 1 with a genetic distance of about 15 cM above CH-Vf1.The positions of the newly identified 'Antonovka' scab resistance factors are compared with previously reported Va mapping approaches and published results from quantitative trait loci analyses performed with different 'Antonovka' genotypes.  
Maps:
LG1A [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG1B [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG1C [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Map Set Name: Apple-2000-2012-F1 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-2000-2012-F1 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 119 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 January, 2012  
Description: Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) provides a high-throughput whole-genome genotyping platform for the detection and scoring of hundreds of polymorphic loci without any need for prior sequence information. The work presented here details the development and performance of a DArT genotyping array for apple. This is the first paper on DArT in horticultural trees. Genetic mapping of DArT markers in two mapping populations and their integration with other marker types showed that DArT is a powerful high-throughput method for obtaining accurate and reproducible marker data, despite the low cost per data point. This method appears to be suitable for aligning the genetic maps of different segregating populations. The standard complexity reduction method, based on the methylation-sensitive PstI restriction enzyme, resulted in a high frequency of markers, although there was 52-54% redundancy due to the repeated sampling of highly similar sequences. Sequencing of the marker clones showed that they are significantly enriched for low-copy, genic regions. The genome coverage using the standard method was 55-76%. For improved genome coverage, an alternative complexity reduction method was examined, which resulted in less redundancy and additional segregating markers. The DArT markers proved to be of high quality and were very suitable for genetic mapping at low cost for the apple, providing moderate genome coverage.  
Maps:
ch1 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch10 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch11 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch12 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch13 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch14 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch15 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch16 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch17 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch2 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch4 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch5 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch6 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch8 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch9 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Map Set Name: Apple-IxR5-F1-2012 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-IxR5-F1-2012 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 179 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 January, 2012  
Description: BACKGROUND: Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus 'Robusta 5'. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. RESULTS: When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with 'Robusta 5' as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand 'Malling 9' x 'Robusta 5' population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein (MxdRLP1) and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German 'Idared' x 'Robusta 5' population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6 cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene (HSP90). In the US 'Otawa3' x 'Robusta5' population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY transcription factor previously associated with fire blight resistance. However, this QTL was not observed in the New Zealand or German populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the upper region of 'Robusta 5' linkage group 3 contains multiple genes contributing to fire blight resistance and that their contributions to resistance can vary depending upon pathogen virulence and other factors. Mapping markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes has proved a useful aid in defining these QTLs and developing markers for marker-assisted breeding of fire blight resistance.  
Maps:
LG3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Apple-M9xR5-F1-2012 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-M9xR5-F1-2012 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 178 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 January, 2012  
Description: BACKGROUND: Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus 'Robusta 5'. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. RESULTS: When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with 'Robusta 5' as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand 'Malling 9' x 'Robusta 5' population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein (MxdRLP1) and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German 'Idared' x 'Robusta 5' population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6 cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene (HSP90). In the US 'Otawa3' x 'Robusta5' population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY transcription factor previously associated with fire blight resistance. However, this QTL was not observed in the New Zealand or German populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the upper region of 'Robusta 5' linkage group 3 contains multiple genes contributing to fire blight resistance and that their contributions to resistance can vary depending upon pathogen virulence and other factors. Mapping markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes has proved a useful aid in defining these QTLs and developing markers for marker-assisted breeding of fire blight resistance.  
Maps:
LG3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Apple-PF-F1-2012 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-PF-F1-2012 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 118 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 01 January, 2012  
Description: Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) provides a high-throughput whole-genome genotyping platform for the detection and scoring of hundreds of polymorphic loci without any need for prior sequence information. The work presented here details the development and performance of a DArT genotyping array for apple. This is the first paper on DArT in horticultural trees. Genetic mapping of DArT markers in two mapping populations and their integration with other marker types showed that DArT is a powerful high-throughput method for obtaining accurate and reproducible marker data, despite the low cost per data point. This method appears to be suitable for aligning the genetic maps of different segregating populations. The standard complexity reduction method, based on the methylation-sensitive PstI restriction enzyme, resulted in a high frequency of markers, although there was 52-54% redundancy due to the repeated sampling of highly similar sequences. Sequencing of the marker clones showed that they are significantly enriched for low-copy, genic regions. The genome coverage using the standard method was 55-76%. For improved genome coverage, an alternative complexity reduction method was examined, which resulted in less redundancy and additional segregating markers. The DArT markers proved to be of high quality and were very suitable for genetic mapping at low cost for the apple, providing moderate genome coverage.  
Maps:
ch1 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch10 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch11 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch12 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch13 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch14 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch15 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch16 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch17 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch2 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch4 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch5 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch6 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch8 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
ch9 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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Cross-references:  
 
Map Set Name: Apple-M432-2012 [ Show Only This Set ]
Abbreviated Name: Apple-M432-2012 [ Download Map Set Data ]
Accession ID: 166 [ View Map Set In Matrix ]
Species: Malus domestica (Apple) [ View Species Info ]
Map Type: Genetic [ View Map Type Info ]
Map Units: cM  
Published On: 14 March, 2012  
Description: An apple rootstock progeny raised from the cross between the very dwarfing 'M.27' and the more vigorous 'M.116' ('M.M.106' x 'M.27') was used for the construction of a linkage map comprising a total of 324 loci: 252 previously mapped SSRs, 71 newly characterised or previously unmapped SSR loci (including 36 amplified by 33 out of the 35 novel markers reported here), and the self-incompatibility locus. The map spanned the 17 linkage groups (LG) expected for apple covering a genetic distance of 1,229.5 cM, an estimated 91% of the Malus genome. Linkage groups were well populated and, although marker density ranged from 2.3 to 6.2 cM/SSR, just 15 gaps of more than 15 cM were observed. Moreover, only 17.5% of markers displayed segregation distortion and, unsurprisingly in a semi-compatible backcross, distortion was particularly pronounced surrounding the self-incompatibility locus (S) at the bottom of LG17. DNA sequences of 273 SSR markers and the S locus, representing a total of 314 loci in this investigation, were used to anchor to the 'Golden Delicious' genome sequence. More than 260 of these loci were located on the expected pseudo-chromosome on the 'Golden Delicious' genome or on its homeologous pseudo-chromosome. In total, 282.4 Mbp of sequence from 142 genome sequence scaffolds of the Malus genome were anchored to the 'M.27' x 'M.116' map, providing an interface between the marker data and the underlying genome sequence. This will be exploited for the identification of genes responsible for traits of agronomic importance such as dwarfing and water use efficiency.  
Maps:
LG1 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG10 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG11 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG12 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG13 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG14 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG15 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG16 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG17 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG2 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG3 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG4 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG5 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG6 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG7 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG8 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
LG9 [ Map Viewer ] [ Map Details ] [ Matrix Viewer ] [ Download Map Data ]
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