Roses are members of the Rosaceae family in the genus RosaOn this page you can find details for maps, and unigenes related to roses.

Raspberries, blackberries and dewberries are members of the Rosacaee family in the genus RubusOn this page you can find links to maps,  unigenes transcripts and Trait Loci data available in GDR.

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Apricot (Prunus armeniaca) is highly prized for its fresh and dried fruit flavor characteristics. Apricots have been traced to China, as early as 658 B.C. Due to their early bloom and precocious nature, apricot production is limited to areas with moderate to cold winters that are frost-free during the spring with hot summers.

Apricots are diploid (2x) and can be grafted with plum and peach. Leaves are ovate with a rounded base, serrated margins, and pointed tips. Flowers may be white or pink and emerge from previous year’s lateral buds before leaves emerge. The fruit have a large pit, with flesh mostly yellow or light in color with varying amounts of red or orange blush on the skin. Fruit do not typically contain much juice. Botanical varieties of apricot include Siberian apricot (P. armeniaca var. sibirica Koch), Manchurian apricot (P. armeniaca var. mandshurica Maxim.), Ansu apricot (P. armeniaca var. ansu (Maxim.) Kost.), Japanese apricot (P. mume), alpine plum (P. brigantica Vill.), purple or black apricot (P. dasycarpa Ehrh), and Tibetian apricot (P. holocericea Batal.). Although the name of cultivated apricot (Armenian apricot, P. armeniaca) appears to indicate an Armenian origin, details of its first cultivation are unknown.

Apricot are typically grafted onto peach or plum rootstocks to withstand various nematode and fungal pathogen pests and impart soil pH and texture adaptability. Apricot trees are susceptible to bacterial canker and blast (Psudeomonas syringae) for which there are few effective control methods other than incorporating disease resistance into new cultivars. Trees are also susceptible to various fungal diseases including shothole (Wilsonomyces carpophilus), powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca pannosa and Podosphaera tridactyla), Armillaria root rot (Armillaria mellea), and virus diseases such as plum pox (Plum pox virus; several strains). Apricot fruit are susceptible to blossom blight and fruit brown rot (Monilinia laxa), reducing availability of fresh fruit in the marketplace.

Ploidy Diploid
Chromosome Number 2n=16
Genome Size 240 Mb
Available Markers 103,342
Available Maps 86
Available QTLs 1235
Available MTLs 56
Available Phenotype Data 113 measurements for 111 descriptors
Ploidy Diploid; Tetraploid
Chromosome Number 2n=16; 2n=4x=32
Genome Size 338 Mb; 599 Mb
Available Markers 103,342
Available Maps 86
Available QTLs 1,235
Available MTLs 56
Available Phenotype Data 58,053 measurem... [more]
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SNPs for cherry are available from the following:

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Downloads

IRSC 6K cherry SNPs mapped to peach IRSC_6K_cherry_SNP_array.xls
Cherry 3'UTR SNPs aligned to Peach (Excel) SweetCherrySNPs-3_UTR.xlsx
Cherry 3'UTR SNPs aligned to Peach (GFF3) SweetCherrySNPs-3_UTR.gff3.gz

 

Prunus avium (sweet cherry) and P. cerasus (sour cherry) are thought to have originated in an area south of the Caucasian mountains and around the Caspian and Black Seas before being distributed throughout Europe and Russia by explorers. Cherry fruit are botanically classified as a drupe, with a small pit (endocarp). P. avium are diploid (2n = 16), while P. cerasus are tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32). Hybrids of P. avium × P. cerasus, known as Duke cherry, are tetraploids that are thought to originate from the pollination of P. cerasus by an unreduced gamete from P. avium. Self-fertile cherry cultivars exist in both P. avium and P. cerasus, although certain P. avium cultivars require cross-pollinators.

Sweet cherries are large, red to black, with high sugars content, and have firm flesh, with varying color from light yellow to dark red color. There are two types of sour cherry, including Morello (dark-red juice) and Amarelle (lighter-red with colorless juice), with an acid taste and softer flesh than sweet cherry. The fruit of sweet cherries are highly prized in the marketplace and are consumed fresh or preserved, while sour cherries are primarily used for cooking, particularly pies, tarts, and as a syrup in certain types of liqueurs. Sour cherry juice has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Both sweet and sour cherries are grafted on rootstocks. The major diseases of both sweet and sour cherries are powdery mildew (Podosphaera clandestine), cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii) Armillaria root rot (Armillaria spp), botrytis blossom blight, brown rot (Monilinia fruticola or M. laxa), and bacterial canker (Pseudomonas syringae). A number of viruses can affect tree growth, including Prunus Necrotic Ringspot Virus (PNRV), Prune Dwarf Virus (PDV) and Little cherry disease.  There are resistant sources of germplasm for a number of these diseases and are a focus in many breeding programs worldwide. 

Below is a list of transcript assemblies that are available for Prunus persica. Click the assembly name for further details.

 
Assembly  Name Analysis Name Date Constructed Stats

 

Prunus avium GDR RefTrans V1

 

Prunus avium GDR RefTrans V1

 

 

2017-02-07  

 

ESTs: 6,035

Reads: 868 million
RefTrans: 25,347

 

Prunus Unigene v5

 

Prunus Unigene v5

 

2013-01-03

Reads: 106,148
Contigs:10,934
Singlets:22,957
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Almond fruit are botanically classified as a drupe and consist of an exocarp (skin), mesocarp (hull), and the shell, which is hardened endocarp. Almonds are diploid (2n=16) and almond species exhibit gametophytic self-incompatibility.  The center of origin for almond is found in central Asia, with subsequent expansion to European and North African regions, often following ancient trade routes. Almond species are split into two different subgroups, Amygdalus and Dodecandra. The genome of cultivated almond is closely related with peach, and readily crosses with peach and other wild almond species.

Almond trees bloom before many other nut species because of their low chill accumulation requirements; however, they do not perform well in locations where summer rains or no winter chill is accumulated. Trees can grow up to 20 m tall and are well adapted to Mediterranean and/or desert climates with mild winters and warm spring and hot and dry summers. Almonds are unique in the Rosaceae family because the nuts rather than the fruit are consumed. Although many wild almond species have seed that are bitter and produce cyanogenic compounds; cultivated almonds have sweet, edible seed. The genetic mutation for sweet seed production over bitter, cyanogenic seed is dominant unlike in peach and apricot. California almonds are distinct from European types because of their “paper shell” which allows for easier harvest as well as greater harvest of desirable kernel meats over woody shells.

Almonds are a popular snack item and they are high in protein and linoleic acid. Almonds are also processed into a paste which is used in marzipan for pastry creations and processed for almond/amaretto extracts. Goals in almonds breeding programs include disease resistance, self-fertility and improved water use efficiency. 

Whole Genome Sequences & Annotations for Prunus dulcis

Pears are members of the Rosacaee family in the genus PyrusOn this page you can find details for maps, and unigenes related to pear.

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Apples are members of the Rosacaee family in the genus MalusOn this page you can find details for maps, unigenes and whole genome assemblies related to apple.

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Chloroplast
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Ploidy Diploid
Chromosome Number 2n=16
Genome Size 240 Mb
Available Markers 103,342
Available Maps 86
Available QTLs 1235
Available MTLs 56
Available Phenotype Data 259 measurements for 19 descriptors
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The cultivated peach (Prunus persica) is a diploid (2n=2x=16) and has a relatively small genome (~265Mb). It belongs to the Rosaceae family, Prunoideae subfamily, and Amygdalus subgenus. Peaches originated in China, where documented evidence showed cultivation started over 3,000 years ago. The species name resulted from an early misconception that the peach originated in Persia.

Peaches probably were brought from China to Persia through the Silk Route and then introduced to Greece and other European countries. Modern cultivars in North and South America descended from European and Chinese selections. For example, many cultivars in the US may be genetically related to ‘Chinese Cling’ that was introduced from China to Georgia, USA by Charles Downing in 1850 and widely used for selection of varieties suitable for local industrial production. Peaches are one of a few temperate fruit crops that can be commercially grown in many countries and under diverse climatic conditions. Peach cultivars vary in cold hardiness and chill requirement (accumulated hours below 7°C). The chill requirement for normal flower bud differentiation ranges from less than 100 to more than 1,000 hours allowing adaptation even in subtropical or cold regions. Peach trees are generally propagated by grafting scions (cultivars) onto suitable rootstocks, to maintain the true-to-type scions and take advantage of better adapted and resistant rootstocks. Peach trees usually have an upright to moderately spreading architecture. Flowers are self-compatible and fertilization usually occurs 24-48 hours after pollination. Fruits are a drupe composed of skin (epidermis), flesh (mesocarp), and stone (endocarp) enclosing the seed. Ripening peach can be clingstone (flesh adhering to the stone) or freestone (flesh separating from the stone); melting (flesh quickly softening) or non-melting (flesh remaining firm). Peach are tasty and rich in healthy pigments and micronutrients. Conventional breeding remains mainstream, largely due to relatively short juvenility, easy hybridization, and low heterozygosity, to improve size, firmness, quality, blush, disease resistances, maturity seasons, and horticulture performance.

Below is a list of transcript assemblies that are available for Prunus persica. Click the assembly name for further details.

Ploidy Diploid
Chromosome Number 2n=2x=16
Genome Size 265 Mb
Available Markers 103,342
Available Maps 86
Available QTLs 1235
Available MTLs 56
Available Phenotype Data 40,297 measurements for 28 descriptors
 
Assembly  Name Analysis Name Date Constructed Stats

 

Prunus persica GDR RefTrans V1

 

Prunus persica GDR RefTrans V1

 

 

2016-12-07  

 

ESTs: 80,805

Reads: 367 million
RefTrans: 23,390

 

Prunus Unigene v5

 

Prunus Unigene v5

 

2013-01-03

Reads: 106,148
Contigs:10,934
Singlets:22,957