Development of an integrated 200K SNP genotyping array and application for genetic mapping, genome assembly improvement and GWAS in pear (Pyrus)
Pear (Pyrus; 2n = 34), the third most important temperate fruit crop, has great nutritional and economic value. Despite the availability of many genomic resources in pear, it is challenging to genotype novel germplasm resources and breeding progeny in a timely and cost-effective manner. Genotyping arrays can provide fast, efficient and high-throughput genetic characterization of diverse germplasm, genetic mapping and breeding populations. We present here 200K AXIOM® PyrSNP, a large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array to facilitate genotyping of Pyrus species. A diverse panel of 113 re-sequenced pear genotypes was used to discover SNPs to promote increased adoption of the array. A set of 188 diverse accessions and an F1 population of 98 individuals from 'Cuiguan' × 'Starkrimson' was genotyped with the array to assess its effectiveness. A large majority of SNPs (166 335 or 83%) are of high quality. The high density and uniform distribution of the array SNPs facilitated prediction of centromeric regions on 17 pear chromosomes, and significantly improved the genome assembly from 75.5% to 81.4% based on genetic mapping. Identification of a gene associated with flowering time and candidate genes linked to size of fruit core via genome wide association studies showed the usefulness of the array in pear genetic research. The newly developed high-density SNP array presents an important tool for rapid and high-throughput genotyping in pear for genetic map construction, QTL identification and genomic selection.
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