Malus x domestica

Overview
GenusMalus
Speciesx domestica
Common NameApple
AbbreviationM. x domestica
PloidyDiploid or Triploid
Chromosome Numbern=17
Genome Size750 Mb
Available Markers2,141,345
Available Maps60
Available QTLs1,222
Available MTLs59
Available Phenotype Data610,656 measurements for 252 descriptors
Available Genotype Data3,704 SNPs; 4,003 SSRs
Genome Assemblies4
GRIN Taxonomy104681
Unigenes
Below is a list of unigenes available for Malus x domestica. Click the unigene name for further details.
Unigene NameAnalysis NameDate ConstructedStats
Malus Unigene v 5.0Malus Unigene v5.02012-12-14Reads: 325111
Contigs: 25525
Singlets: 60918
Germplasm
NameType
0306F-0003breeding_research_material
0306F-0005breeding_research_material
0306F-0012breeding_research_material
0306F-0013breeding_research_material
0316-0002breeding_research_material
0316C-0005breeding_research_material
0319F-0007breeding_research_material
0319F-0011breeding_research_material
0320-0001breeding_research_material
0320-0002breeding_research_material
0403-0001breeding_research_material
0403-0004breeding_research_material
0403-0011breeding_research_material
0403-0017breeding_research_material
0407-0001breeding_research_material
0407-0002breeding_research_material
0407-0005breeding_research_material
0407-0006breeding_research_material
0407-0007breeding_research_material
0407-0008breeding_research_material

Page of 118
KEGG Report
Transcripts

Below is a list of transcript assemblies that are available for Malus x domestica. Click the assembly name for further details.

 
Assembly  Name Analysis Name Date Constructed Stats

 

Malus x domestica GDR RefTrans V1

 

Malus x domestica GDR RefTrans V1

 

 

2017-01-24  

 

EST Reads: 326,941

RNA-Seq Reads: 2.1 billion

Assembled Contigs: 85,918

 

Cornell RNA_Seq Transcripts

 

Cornell RNA Seq Transcripts

 

2013-10-16

 

EST Reads: 180.8 million

Assembled Contigs: 71,178

 

Description

The domesticated apple (Malus x domestica) is the most economically important species in the Malus genus. Apples are one of the 20 most productive crops in the world when measured by tonnage, and the domesticated species is grown in temperate regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The domesticated apple originated approximately 4000 years ago in central Asia, near the Tian Shan mountain range, where the borders of western China, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan meet. The main progenitor species is Malus sieversii, but there were additional genomic contributions from Malus orientalis and Malus sylvestris as the domesticated species spread westward. 
Domesticated apple is a self-incompatible tree, and apple cultivars are propagated by grafting scions onto dedicated rootstocks. Written records indicate that some apple cultivars were documented as early as the 1200s, and new cultivars are still developed through modern breeding techniques. Most domesticated apple cultivars are diploid (n=17), although triploid and tetraploid cultivars are also documented. The estimated genome size for domesticated apple is roughly 750 Mb, based on the genome sequence for the ‘Golden Delicious’ cultivar. 
Apple fruit is a good source of fiber and energy, and can be consumed in a variety of ways. Much of the crop is eaten fresh, and fresh fruit can be stored for up to a year in the right conditions. Apples can also be processed into sauce, fruit leather, cooked into other foods (such as pastries), or dried in slices. Apple juice can be consumed fresh, fermented into alcoholic beverages, or made into vinegar. China produces more apples than any country in the world, while Poland is the world’s leading apple exporter. The major challenges for apple breeding include increased disease resistance, especially for apple scab and fire blight, and increased marketability in terms of improved taste, texture, storage, and resistance to browning.